عنوان مقاله [English]
Binary oppositions are considered as one of the main components of the critique of modern texts; but they can also be used in the critique of Persian classical texts. In Ilāhī-Nāmeh, Attār Neishapouri suggests that on the path of the Truth, nobody can reach the perfection without binary oppositions. Thus, he faces the sālek (holy traveler) with much binary oppositions from the beginning to the end of suluk (spiritual journey). Attār believes that the only method for converting oppositions to unity is to use the force of "transformation" and "equation". Most of the oppositions employed by Attār are linked to "transformation"; in this way, the opposites change their nature and unite with each other. In this "transformation", he seeks a kind of "transcendence" that needs contemplation and going beyond the corporal world. By using descriptive and analytic method, in the present article, the attempt is made to explain Attār's Divine thoughts based on concepts of "binary oppositions", "transformation" and "equation". This research does not seek to find the opposite terms and to classify the binary oppositions quantitatively, but it attempts to find the concepts that beyond apparent oppositions may conduce to the perfection of man.