عنوان مقاله [English]
In Persian classic texts, the word of honar (art and techne) has been used in various meanings, and in all literary texts every trait and concept that has a positive side is expressed in the title of honar. In epics and in different positions and textures, this term refers to any act and attribute that is of value and is associated with heroic rites. Also in lyric and didactic works, whenever poets and writers wanted to highlight a concept, called it honar. In any case, what does the term honar means in classic texts (techne, virtue), or in the modern sense of it, the concepts derive from this term are not derived from the word itself; and the semantic variation of it is the result of the context. The capacity and nature of the word is such that it is used in different meanings. In Islamic mysticism, in addition to formal and general meanings, honar has been used in certain meanings by poet mystics. In Hafez's poetry honar has been used in several meanings: love, libertinism (rendi), ocular flirtation (nazarbazi), quietism, and sorrow. But the important point is that in the poetry of Hafez, honar also means spiritual journey (seir o suluk) and the Muslim mystics are referred to as "the people of honar". In the present article, first, the term of "honar" is studied in Persian classic texts and then its specific meanings are analyzed in Hafez's poetry.