عنوان مقاله [English]
Magic and rituals has always been considered by man in various aspects. We can see this subject in literary masterpieces, such as Shahnāmeh. The aim of present article is to study magic and magical rituals in the story of Rostam and Esfandiar. For this purpose, we try to analysis the spells mentioned in the story and their related rituals (like shamanistic rites, magic therapy, magical weapon, invulnerability, breaking the spell) and to compare them with the myths of other nations. Then, we consider the reasons of man’s inclination to magic and the effect of magic powers on immortality or mortality of the owners of these powers. As a result, there are many common features between the magic and magical rites of the story of Rostam and Esfandiar and Iranian ancient society; also there are some similarities between the myths of the story and the myths of other nations. As an another result, one of the main reasons of man’s inclination to magic, magical powers and creation of mythical heroes is overcoming of his weakness to confront the suffering and hardships of life and achieving his greatest wish, immortality. Despite having magic powers and being immortal, it is not possible for man to achieve this wish and eventually he will be defeated and dead.